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Sunday, May 21, 2017

The Petersburg Canon, Part IX: Missing Histories

Now comes a big gap in the history of the Siege of Petersburg, covered only by the general histories of the siege, not by any more detailed studies than perhaps a magazine article.

First, there is the Applejack Raid, also known as the Stony Creek Raid or the Weldon Railroad Raid, of December 7-12, 1864.  Grant sent a reinforced corps to wreck the Weldon Railroad from Stony Creek to Hicksford.  Lee dispatched A. P. Hill with infantry and Hampton with cavalry in pursuit.  Little fighting resulted, but there will always be speculation about what might have happened if Hill had adopted Mahone's plan to send half the infantry to Jarratt's Station to cut off Warren's retreat.  The destruction of a reinforced Federal corps might not have amounted to a Saratoga at this point, with the presidential election over.  A history of the Applejack Raid must also focus on the impact of the raid upon civilians.  It must draw upon many individual accounts.

Next, there is the naval Battle of Trent's Reach, January 23-25, 1865.  This affair was probably connected with the march of Mahone's Division to Belfield at the same time.  The Confederate James River Squadron sortied in the absence of almost the entire Federal fleet, which had gone to assist in the capture of Fort Fisher.  The mission was to bombard City Point, something that brings to mind Kongo and Haruna bombarding Henderson Field on the night of October 13, 1942.  The Confederate ironclads did not make it to City Point.  Though Virginia II and Richmond grounded, Fredericksburg made it through, frightened off the double-turreted monitor Onondaga, and then--turned back!  Never Send an Admiral on a Suicide Mission would be my title.  When fatigue sets in, sailors revert to their default mode--save the ship.  Look at Admiral Mikawa after Savo Island and Admiral Kurita at Leyte Gulf--charged with destroying the American transports, both turned back to save their ships after destroying everything in their way.  There was no point in saving their ships.

Finally, there is the Battle of Hatchers Run, February 5-7, 1865.  This was Grant's eighth offensive at Petersburg, with most of the Army of the Potomac fighting it out in terrible weather with elements of Lee's Second and Third Corps.  The offensive appears linked with the Hampton Roads Conference, where the Confederates tried unsuccessfully to negotiate a peace on terms better than unconditional surrender.  There will be many Federal regimental histories to draw upon and to get a balanced view, the author will have to do a lot of research into Confederate manuscripts and newspapers.

Back Up Those Files!

On Friday afternoon, just as I was putting the finishing touches on the manuscript of The Petersburg Regiment, 12th Virginia Infantry:  A History, an unsolicited download from Microsoft wiped the entire manuscript and all my legal work from my laptop.

Thank God for Carbonite!  By Friday evening, everything was back.  I had my files backed up otherwise, but not as well.

I'm not plugging a specific product, but two good friends have lost substantial work for want of back-up.  Get those files backed up!

Saturday, May 6, 2017

Addendum to The Petersburg Canon, Part 1: Histories Dealing with the Entire Campaign

Originally, in Part 1 of the Petersburg Canon, I mentioned three general campaign histories and two two-volume works dealing with the campaign Southside.

There is a substantial work on the fighting on the York-James Peninsula--The Peninsula.  This is volume 2 of Henrico County, Field of Honor, written by Louis Manarin and published by Henrico County.  (Volume 1 covers the fighting in 1862, volume 2 the fighting in 1864.)  I disagree with many of the opinions expressed in volume 2 about the fighting in August 1864, but it is possible that the author may be right about them and I may be wrong.  The production values in this book are unparalleled--glossy paper, color photographs and color maps.  Furthermore, it fills a gap in the canon by covering virtually all the fighting on The Peninsula during the Siege.  It is unusually expensive, but it belongs on the shelf of every Siege of Petersburg aficionado who can afford it. 

Saturday, April 29, 2017

Addendum to The Petersburg Canon, Part VI: Grant's Fourth Offensive--the Weldon Railroad, August 1864

Another thing I would do if I had it to do over again writing The Siege of Petersburg:  The Battles for the Weldon Railroad, August 1864, is to illustrate the book more methodically--not just with more maps, but with more photos and drawings.  As I illustrate The Petersburg Regiment, 12th Virginia Infantry, I've come across some helpful websites for illustrations.  There is http://www.petersburgproject.org/, where I found the following drawing of the Gurley House from the Diary of Francis W. Knowles:



There is https://www.history.navy.mil/, where I found helpful pictures of ships and naval actions (the ship is USS Thomas Freeborn and the action is First Drewry's Bluff):



There are also websites for Harper's Weekly, Frank Leslie's Illustrated History of the Civil War, and Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.  These are so easy to find that you just have to put those titles in your search engine to come up with the websites.  The Library of Congress and the National Archives are also readily available, as is the U. S. Army Heritage and Education Center.  

Tuesday, April 25, 2017

The Petersburg Canon, Part VIII: Grant's Sixth Offensive, October 1864

The third of the three consecutive books on the Siege of Petersburg that each cover one of Grant’s offensives is Richmond Must Fall, by Hampton Newsome.  This book covers Grant’s sixth offensive at Petersburg, and indeed a little more—some of the aftermath of Grant’s fifth offensive.  Hampton captures unforgettably the dismal atmosphere of late October 1864.  He provides us with detailed accounts of the fighting on October 7, October 13, and—most importantly—October 27, 1864, Grant’s last grasp at Richmond before the November election.  The maps he has drawn are excellent.  His opinions are judicious.  Richmond Must Fall belongs on the shelf of every student of the Siege of Petersburg.  I only wish he had allowed me to be of more help to him, though I doubt I could have been as much help to him as he has been to me.  Hampton drew the maps for my book The Siege of Petersburg:  The Battles for the Weldon Railroad, August 1864.  He has drawn the maps and diagrams for my next book, on the 12th Virginia Infantry, which fought at Burgess Mill south of the Appomattox on October 27.  He read the manuscripts of both these books and provided very sensible editorial advice—he’s an outstanding editor as well as a masterful writer.  I hope I have not diverted him too much from his own work—his next project is a book about the Confederate counteroffensive on the North Carolina coast in the spring of 1864.  He really knows his stuff about the Siege of Petersburg, because he took the lead in editing (with John Selby and myself) Civil War Talks:  Further Reminiscences of George S. Bernard and His Fellow Veterans (2012), possibly the most important book on the siege since Bernard’s War Talks of Confederate Veterans (1892).  

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

A Tip on Illustrations

An observation.  I'm working on the illustrations for my history of the 12th Virginia.  I have come across enough portraits of soldiers (of which I was unaware) while looking for other things that I may have to google every soldier in the roster--all 1532 of them.  If you are writing a biography or a history of an action or a campaign, you may want to google every soldier you mention in your text.

Saturday, April 15, 2017

The Petersburg Canon, Part VII: Grant's Fifth Offensive, September 1864


                A single book covers the next of Grant’s offensives at Petersburg, his fifth.  This book is Richard Sommers’ Richmond Redeemed.  It still sets the standard for scholarship among books on the Siege.  Dr. Sommers looked up practically every source, published and unpublished, in his research for this book.  He did it the old fashioned way, by writing to or visiting many, many repositories.  He did not have the benefit of the extensive digitalization of sources in the past few years.  Hats off to Dr. Sommers!  I have thought long and hard about how an amateur historian can attain the standard Dr. Sommers has set, and the only path that seems practical to me is to narrow the scope of the project to the point where the research can encompass all available sources.  That means focusing on a brief, limited action or on a small unit.

Saturday, April 1, 2017

The Petersburg Canon, Part VI: Grant's Fourth Offensive--the Weldon Railroad, August 1864

After the four books on the Crater come three books, each on one of the following three offensives.  I wrote the book for August, which follows next.

I can criticize my own book easier than anyone else's.  My goal was to make people feel the heat and humidity at Second Deep Bottom, the chaos of Globe Tavern, the desperation of Second Reams Station.

As I work on other projects and improve as an historian, I see more things I could have done.  If I had it to do over again, I'd start by describing the failed Confederate attempt at destroying the Deep Bottom bridgehead.  ;This would involve the navies.  Cornell has a handy website.

I've described my errors.  Pond's brigade charged five deep, not eleven deep, at Fussell's Mill on August 16, 1864.  The Wilson-Kautz Raid affected Confederate rail transportation until mid-July 1864, not September 1864.

I'd also draw more upon newspaper accounts and manuscript sources available online.  Hampton Newsome, an outstanding editor, encourage me to look at newspapers more than I already had in regard to the book I'm completing on the Petersburg Regiment, the 12th Virginia Infantry in Weisiger's Brigade of Mahone's Division.  Here's an example of what I would have found:

Privates George William May of the Petersburg City Guard and Alexander M. Miles of the Petersburg Old Grays, in Petersburg that day, learned that the regiment was going out to fight.  They grabbed their Enfields and hotfooted it out of town together to join the 12th.  Rushing into the belt of woods north of the Globe Tavern clearing swept by Colquitt’s and Clingman’s brigades, they joined the pandemonium prevailing there as small bands of soldiers of both sides rushed this way and that, capturing, escaping and recapturing one another.  In the thicket, May and Miles saw a party of Federals advancing towards them.  Thinking that retreat would lead to death while standing and fighting would result in captivity, the two Virginians ducked behind some trees and conferred.  They resolved on bluffing the bluecoats.
When the Unionists arrived within hearing, May stepped forward and demanded their surrender.  He told the Yanks that he had a regiment behind him while another was bearing down on their flank.  Some of the Unionists threw down their arms immediately, but the officer leading them hesitated.  Hidden in the underbrush, Miles made enough noise to suggest a lot of Confederates advancing.  The threat of overpowering numbers silenced the officer.  The whole party lay down their arms and marched in double file to where May stood.  May placed himself at the head of the column.  Miles came out of the timber and posted himself at the column’s rear.  The two Virginians led the Northerners within Confederate lines.  They had taken prisoner a captain, a lieutenant and twenty-five privates whose chagrin knew no bounds when they discovered the deception.[1]

I'd also ask Hampton for more of his excellent maps.






[1] The Daily Confederate (Raleigh, N.C.), August 26, 1864; The Chattanooga Rebel (Griffin, Ga.), September 3, 1864.  Both versions mistakenly name George Henry May instead of George William May, both of whom belonged to the Petersburg City Guard, but George Henry May had died on May 22, 1863 from his Second Manassas wound.  Henderson, 12th Virginia Infantry, 140.

Friday, March 24, 2017

Thanks, Greater Orlando Civil War Round Table!

Thanks, Greater Orlando Civil War Round Table, for the pleasant reception you gave my wife and me Thursday night, March 23.  My talk was on the 12th Virginia Infantry, the Petersburg Regiment, on August 19, 1864, during the battle of Globe Tavern.  Mahone's brigade, of which the 12th was a part, squared off against White's (formerly Ledlie's) division of IX Corps in a very intense fight east of the main struggle.

We had arrived the day before at Winter Park, just north of Orlando, after stays at Jekyll and Little St. Simon's Islands.  Winter Park is a very pleasant town that has a museum which includes the largest existing collection of the work of Louis Comfort Tiffany, who made the stained glass windows that commemorate the Confederate dead in Petersburg's Blandford Church--the brick church on Crater Road (formerly Jerusalem Plank Road).  One of my wife's ancestors contested title to some of the church's property prior to the Revolutionary War, but lost.

Saturday, March 18, 2017

The Petersburg Canon, Part V: Grant's Third Offensive at Petersburg

There are four main books on The Crater, the culmination of Grant’s third offensive at Petersburg.  They all cover, in varying degrees of detail, Hancock’s thrust north of James River to threaten Richmond and draw Confederates away from the Cockade City, maximizing the chances for success when the mine was exploded.

The first is “The Horrid Pit,” by Michael Kavanaugh and William Marvel.  This book was written before the internet brought so many original and published regimental sources so accessible but it is still an excellent introduction to the subject.

I thought Richard Slotkin’s “No Quarter” was particularly disappointing for its many errors, given that it came from a major publishing house.  It brings little to the party.

John Schmutz’ “The Battle of the Crater” brings to light some new unpublished material, but it still needs significant editing.

If I were limited to reading one book about The Crater, it would be Earl Hess’ “Into the Crater,” which has particularly good maps and brings new unpublished material to light. 

There is still plenty of unpublished material on The Crater that has not been integrated into a major book on the subject.  A systematic search of newspapers probably would bring more to light.  A definitive book on this terrible struggle has therefore not yet been written.

My take on The Crater is that the layout of the June 18 Confederate line affected the battle significantly.  Meade was right that Pegram’s Salient was a poor location for the mine because the salient stood between two higher points.  Grant appears to have failed to convey to Burnside the experience gained from mines exploded at Vicksburg.  Meade’s interference with Burnside’s plan and Grant’s support of Meade after letting Burnside go so far violated fundamental principles of management.

Next—beyond the Crater.

Saturday, March 11, 2017

The Petersburg Canon, Part IV: Grant's Second Offensive at Petersburg

Grant's second offensive, which involved the most ambitious movement of the entire siege, lacks its own book.  Despite that, two books cover actions that form part of Grant's second offensive.  I found them compelling enough that I set out to write a book on the same scale.

The books I speak of are Dr. David F. Cross' A Melancholy Affair at the Weldon Railroad: The Vermont Brigade, June 23, 2864 (Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane Publishing Co., Inc., 2003), and Capt. Greg Eanes' 'Destroy The Junction,' The Wilson-Kautz Raid & The Battle for the Staunton River Bridge:  June 21, 1864 to July 1, 1864 (Lynchburg, Va.:  H. E. Howard, Inc., 1999.    

Dr. Cross' book adopts the strategy of focusing very narrowly to master the material.  I think it succeeds.  The book focuses on the ordeal of the Vermont Brigade of VI Corps on June 23, 1864, and thereafter in Southern prison camps.  I find the book, its sources and its maps very helpful.  

Captain Eanes' book reads as an eyewitness history.  It seems repetitive at times but grows on you.  The maps could be better, but the sources are most helpful.  Eanes corrects the story that the Wilson-Kautz interrupted rail traffic to Richmond for months; instead, trains to the Confederate capital resumed within about three weeks.  

Two or three books on a similar scale remain to be written.  The first one or two would be on the fighting west of the Jerusalem Plank Road on June 21 between II Corps and the Confederate cavalry and on June 22 between II Corps and Mahone's Division.  II Corps performed as poorly as it did in August, which is very poorly indeed.

The other book, if a book indeed is merited rather than just an article, would be on the abortive Confederate attack of June 24, 1864, near where another Confederate attack took place on March 25, 1865.  

The Cross book and the Eanes book were written before internet research sites truly blossomed.  Anyone writing about June 21, June 22 or June 24 should look closely at the many public domain memoirs and unit histories as well as invaluable newspaper sites such as newspapers.com and chroniclingamerica.com.  

Saturday, March 4, 2017

The Petersburg Canon, Part III: Grant's First Offensive at Petersburg

There are two books one must read on Grant's first offensive at Petersburg, June 15-18, 1864.

The first was by Thomas Howe, The Petersburg Campaign:  Wasted Valor, June 15-18, 1864, written in 1988.  It provides a solid introduction to the fight and is particularly focused on debunking the theory that Grant's soldiers were too traumatized by attacking earthworks during the Overland Campaign to assault them at Petersburg.  The maps are good.  There is not as much manuscript or newspaper material as one expects nowadays.

The second book on Grant's first offensive is much more recent, by Sean Chick:  The Battle of Petersburg, June 15-18, 1864.  In substance, this book represents an advance beyond Wasted Valor.  For one thing, the maps are better.  But in this day of digitalized research, much more could have been done with manuscript and newspaper material.

There is room for another book on Grant's first offensive that utilizes digitalized research better.  Many, many regimental histories, personal memoirs and letter collections are available online now.  Newspapers galore are available at chroniclingamerica.com (the Library of Congress newspaper archive) and newspapers.com.

Likewise, there is room for another book on the Bermuda Hundred Campaign because both Roberson's Back Door to Richmond and Schiller's Bermuda Hundred Campaign were written before the digitalization of so many sources eased the scholar's burden.   

Saturday, February 25, 2017

The Petersburg Canon, Part II: The Bermuda Hundred Campaign and Butler's Attack on Petersburg


Prelude:  The Bermuda Hundred Campaign

Two books cover much of the Bermuda Hundred Campaign, which lasted from May 5, 1864 until arguably as late as June 15, 1864, when Grant and the Army of the Potomac arrived at the gates of Petersburg.

William Glenn Robertson.  Back Door to Richmond:  The Bermuda Hundred Campaign, April-June 1864.  Newark, Del.:  The University of Delaware Press, 1987.

Herbert M. Schiller.  The Bermuda Hundred Campaign.  Dayton, Oh.:  Morningside House, 1988.

These two books, both excellent, complement one another in their approaches.  The former is more of a view from a distant perspective, while the latter gets a little bit deeper into the thickets.  Both have splendid maps.  They cover a campaign in which Petersburg was ripe for the taking at first but not the objective until the opportunity to walk into the Cockade City had passed.

Butler's Attack on Petersburg

One book covers Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler's June 9, 1864 attack on Petersburg.

William Glenn Robertson.  The First Battle for Petersburg:  The Attack and Defense of the Cockade City, June 9, 1864.  El Dorado Hills, Ca.:  Savas Beatie, 2015.  This is an expanded version of  The Petersburg Campaign:  The Battle of Old Men and Young Boys June 9, 1864  (Lynchburg, Va.:  H. E. Howard, Inc., 1989).

This is the only book on a battle that seems insignificant in terms of numbers but was critical because it alerted the Confederates to Petersburg's vulnerability and led them to reinforce it enough that the Federals could not just march into the city on June 15, 1864.  It covers the June 9 fight in vivid detail.

 


Saturday, February 18, 2017

Coming in August: "Judgment at Appomattox" by Ralph Peters

Ralph Peters, who brought to life the siege of Petersburg in his novel The Damned of Petersburg, will have out the fifth and final novel of his eastern theater cycle, Judgment at Appomattox.  The book will cover the period from Fort Stedman (March 25, 1865) to Lee's surrender at Appomattox.  The other titles of the series are Cain at Gettysburg, Hell or Richmond, and Valley of the Shadow.  I expect to have the same difficulty setting down Judgment at Appomattox as I did its predecessors.

Saturday, February 11, 2017

The Petersburg Canon, Part 1: Histories Dealing with the Entire Campaign

There are really only three histories that cover the entire campaign.  They complement one another, because each takes a different approach.

Hess, Earl J..  In the Trenches at Petersburg:  Field Fortifications and Confederate Defeat.  Chapel Hill, N.C.:  University of North Carolina Press, 2009.  This book takes the most original point of view and focuses on the fortifications.  The author would have done well to study siege warfare during other periods, but just the writing about the fortifications is worth the price of the book.  One of the book's insights is that the field fortifications delayed Confederate defeat in that Federal troops who should have been training to fight spent their time digging instead.

Horn, John.  The Petersburg Campaign:  June 1864-April 1865.  Conshohocken, Pa.: Combined Books, Inc., 1993.  An interpretative, analytical, traditional approach--except for excerpts from the diaries of Pvt. George S. Bernard of the 12th Virginia Infantry, the Petersburg Regiment, at the heart of much of the fighting Southside (south of the Appomattox River).  Long on tables, short on maps.

Trudeau, Noah Andre.  The Last Citadel:  Petersburg, Virginia, June 1864- April, 1865.  El Dorado Hills, Ca.:   Savas Beatie, 2014.  An eyewitness history of the siege.

There are two histories that focus on the fighting Southside, a very substantial part of the siege.  Because one of these histories focuses mainly on the Federal side, and the other on the Confederate side, these volumes complement each other.

Bearss, Edwin C., with Suderow, Bryce A.  The Petersburg Campaign.  2 Vols.  El Dorado Hills, Ca.:  Savas Beatie, 2012.  These volumes build on Mr. Bearss' studies of the main actions Southside.  They focus mostly on the Official Records and the Federal side of things.  

The other history has quite a history of its own.

Bernard, George S., ed.  War Talks Of Confederate Veterans:  Addresses delivered before A.P. Hill Camp of Confederate Veterans, of Petersburg, Va., with ADDENDA giving Statements of Participants, Eye-Witnesses and others, in respect to Campaigns, Battles, Prison Life and other War Experiences. Petersburg:  Fenn & Owen, 1892.  Bernard and his comrades would write articles, publish them, seek comments from their fellow soldiers, and publish the results.  This volume is critical to the understanding of the battle of the Crater, among other fights--not all of them around Petersburg.

Newsome, Hampton, Horn, John and Selby, John.  Civil War Talks: Further Reminiscences of George S. Bernard and His Fellow Veterans.  Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 2012.  Bernard originally compiled and edited this book.  He was ready to publish it in 1896, essentially as volume 2 of War Talks Of Confederate Veterans.  Something happened and the manuscript disappeared.  It showed up at a flea market in 2004, where it was purchased for fifty dollars.  Later it was sold to the History Museum of Western Virginia for fifteen thousand.  This volume covers the battles of Globe Tavern (August 1864) and Burgess Mill (October 1864), among others--again, not all of them around Petersburg.





Saturday, February 4, 2017

Was Atlanta Really the Last Chance for the Confederacy? Or Did It Have Another Chance in 1865?

In beginning a draft of a book on the extraordinary maneuvers and events at Petersburg on June 22, 1864, I compared Grant's progress to Sherman's and assessed Joe Johnston as a poor choice for commander of the Army of Tennessee if the goal was to retain possession of Atlanta.

At least one reader of my circulated comments on Johnston thought I didn't understand what Johnston was up to.  What do you think he was up to?  A purely Fabian strategy of abandoning Atlanta to preserve the Army of Tennessee?  

I'm interested because I recently read Stanley Horn's The Decisive Battle of Nashville and the author (no relation to me) asserts that the Federal government would have run out of money to prosecute the war by the summer of 1865.  If that were the case, a Fabian strategy might have been viable.  It's still pretty clear that President Davis wanted Atlanta held, but Johnston might have done well to give up the city to preserve his army if the Federal government was going to run out of money in the middle of 1865.

What do you think?

Saturday, January 28, 2017

Congratulations Brett Schulte on your Wonderful Website, Beyond the Crater

Anybody starting to write a book about almost any aspect of the Siege of Petersburg would do well to start by looking at Brett Schulte's www.beyondthecrater.com.  This wonderful website puts many, many resources at one's fingertips.  It contains Official Records, newspapers, battle summaries, unit histories, maps, unpublished materials, Battles & Leaders, Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States war papers, National Tribune, Military Papers of the Military Historical Society of Massachusetts, Southern Historical Society Papers, Confederate Veteran, other postwar publications, and orders of battle.  A stop at The Siege of Petersburg Online (another name for the website) will really get you started.  Congratulations Brett!

Saturday, January 21, 2017

A Pleasant Time at the Orange County (California) Civil War Round Table

My wife and I had a pleasant time at the Orange County (California) Civil War Round Table last Tuesday night, January 17.  I talked about the fight between around 600 men from Weisiger's Virginia Brigade and about 150 men from Colquitt's Georgia Brigade against approximately 1,120 men from White's division of IX Corps.  The fight took place on August 19, 1864, off by itself on the eastern side of the Globe Tavern battlefield.  A participant called it "The No Name Battle."  David Zieve, a college classmate I had not seen in 45 years showed up for the meeting.



Saturday, January 14, 2017

Another Correction to "The Siege of Petersburg: The Battles for the Weldon Railroad, August 1864"

On page 310, I mistakenly wrote that Hampton and his cavalry departed Petersburg for South Carolina in 1864.  Correct of course is that they departed in 1865.

Mea culpa!

Saturday, January 7, 2017

More on the Civil War Naval Museum

I took pictures of most of the exhibits at the Civil War Naval Museum December 23.  To see them, click here.  Then click on any of the pictures for a full screen view.  My favorite was the picture of CSS Jackson, a rare photo of a Confederate ironclad in Confederate service.